The 1¾ century gap between “High” and “Low” archeologists’ and scientists’ datings is finding new focus and new scholarship.
A decade or two ago, two schools of humanities-trained, arts-degreed archeologists were practically alone in dating the Santorini volcano eruption and the reigns of various Egyptian Parohs. One school insisted that Scripture was correct and the other school insisted that Scripture was wrong. Both engines, by assuming, were a few cars short of a train. Datings of the Yᵊtzi•âhꞋ were all over the map, from BCE 17th century to 12th century.
For a number of years, there were no 14C datings, even of the Santorini eruption. When they began to trickle down, suggesting the BCE mid-17th century (Bruins, Foster), there still were no 14C datings for the reigns of Egyptian Parohs, just the word of one, unreliable, man who lived centuries after the fact (Manetho).
At that time, thinking that the chronological range of the eruption v the chronological range of the
Tut–Moses/–Moses clan were too chronologically close to be mere coincidence, I interpolated a midpoint where a recent dating of the eruption might converge with an earlier dating of the Tut–Moses‘ reigns: c BCE 1453. That date still hasn’t been “updated” in a number of my website pages.
Recent scholarship includes, for the first time, 14C datings for the reigns of Egyptian Parohs (Ramsey), suggesting that, while the c BCE 1625 date remains correct for the Santorini eruption, 14C datings are insisting that the
Tut–Moses/Moses clan were, indeed, c BCE 1455-1450.
This forces the decision: if these dates are inescapable facts, as they seem, then the Yᵊtzi•âhꞋ cannot be concurrent with both.
As I have demonstrated in the website (see Glossary entries for Paroh, Mosheh, Khat-shepset, Yetziah, et al.) and, subsequently, in “The Parent’s Bedtime Bible Stories For Children” (tentative title) I’m currently working on, Scripture documents that Moses was named by the Egyptian Pharaonic Princess. His name did not come from his natural Hebrew parents. Mozes was an Egyptian, not Hebrew, name, a suffix meaning “-incarnate“.
The precedent for this Egyptian name is a series of Pharaonic names, beginning with
Ah–Mozes; and their reigns turn out to be chronologically proximate to this period.
Moreover, the xx–Mozes Royal Egyptian Pharaonic family included the an Egyptian Pharaonic Princess of note, who later became Paroh herself, Khat-shepset (spelled variously, pronunciation of Egyptian vowels is uncertain). Further, for a still-unknown reason, her historical record was subsequently chiseled off of the wall of the Karnak temple; the only example of blotting out the historical record in early Egyptian history. What singularly unparalleled Egyptian embarrassment could have occurred during her reign to motivate such censure? Why did the erasure have to wait until 20 years after her death?
The plot thickens. The Parohs not only believed themselves to be incarnations of their favorite
god, they believed that, therefore, they must keep the “royal blood” pure; that is, in the family – incest. That implies that, after a natural brother of Khat-shepset, her adopted brother-prince, Moses, would have been next in line to produce the next generation. Egyptian records also show that Khat-shepset had a long love-affair that was with an unidentified person named Sen-en-mut, with made-up parents concealing his real parents. Thus, she preferred some other over the expected coupling with her natural brother. Viewing herself as the incarnation of IꞋsis, she would still keep the “royal blood” pure – coupling instead with her lifelong heart-throb, whom she reclaimed from the Nile: the incarnation of HōrꞋus. That infant retrieved from the Nile, of course, was the Hebrew baby, Moses.
It is hard to imagine Egyptian records finding a better fit; particularly in the Muslim era when any historical record that conflicts with Islamic claims is quickly and ruthlessly destroyed.
The conundrum is driven by seemingly inescapable 14C datings. The same, seemingly reliable 14C datings that insist that the Santorini eruption occurred c BCE 1625 are now reinforcing the date of the end of the reign of Khat-shepset
Tut–Mozes reign c BCE 1455-50!
Looks like my original dating of c BCE 1453 was correct. I made a mistake. I thought I was wrong. But I wasn’t. 🙂
Hendrik J. Bruins. “Dating Pharaonic Egypt,” Science Vol 328, (2010.06.18): 1489-90. science.sciencemag.org 2018.01.08
Hendrik J Bruins, Johannes van der Plicht. “The Minoan Santorini Eruption And Its 14C Position In Archaeological Strata: Preliminary Comparison Between Ashkelon And Tell El-Dabca,” Radiocarbon Vol 59, Nr 5 (2017): p 1295-1307.
Karen Polinger Foster, Johannes H. Sterba Georg Steinhauser, & Max Bichler. “The Thera eruption and Egypt: pumice, texts, and chronology” in Jan Heinemeier; Walter L Friedrich; David Warburton. Time’s up! : dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini : acts of the Minoan eruption chronology workshop, Sandbjerg November 2007, initiated by Jan Heinemeier & Walter L. Friedrich (Athens, Danish Institute at Athens; Aarhus: Aarhus University Press [Distr.], 2009), p. 171-80.
Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Michael W. Dee, Joanne M. Rowland, Thomas F. G. Higham, Stephen A. Harris, Fiona Brock, Anita Quiles, Eva M. Wild, Ezra S. Marcus, Andrew J. Shortland. “Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt,” Science VOL 328, (2010.06.18): 1554. http://www.sciencemag.org
Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Michael W. Dee, Joanne M. Rowland, Thomas F. G. Higham, Stephen A. Harris, Fiona Brock, Anita Quiles, Eva M. Wild, Ezra S. Marcus, Andrew J. Shortland. “Supporting Online Material for Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt” Science (2011.05.17). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/328/5985/1554/DC1